Revealed on January 14th, 2019 |
by Dr. Maximilian Holland
January 14th, 2019 by Dr. Maximilian Holland
With the just lately introduced retirement of the 75D variants of the Fashions S and X, and hints about upcoming v3 Superchargers, Tesla is probably going getting battle ready to match the Taycan’s real-world charging speeds (miles added per minute).
Elon Musk introduced this final week that the 75D variants of the Mannequin S and Mannequin X are quickly going to be retired from manufacturing (tomorrow or right now, relying on the place you’re). Tesla gained’t in fact be leaving clients with just one battery measurement choice (the 100 kWh battery) for lengthy, however will probably as an alternative introduce a brand new, larger capability, “standard range” (or maybe “mid range”) battery choice for the S and X. There’s a nexus of different elements and issues that additionally relate to this alteration, together with the soon-to-arrive, quicker, Supercharger v3, and the necessity to compete with the headline specs of different premium EVs that might be coming out there — particularly the Porsche Taycan and it’s quick DC charging speeds.
Why retire the 75D battery packs?
A relative weak spot of the 75D’s battery has been its comparatively low DC charging velocity in comparison with all different present Tesla batteries. Whist different present batteries can Supercharge at as much as 120 kW (even that of the Mannequin three Mid Vary), the 75D’s batteries prime out at 100 kW, and are thus under the bounds of even the present Supercharger know-how, not to mention the upcoming v3 era. The 75Ds have managed to take care of some delight through the use of their power a bit extra effectively than their 100D (and P100D) siblings, claiming again some kudos when it comes to replenishing miles per minute of cost.
The graphs (courtesy of the gurus over at ABRP) recommend that there’s nonetheless some headroom for larger powered charging within the present P/100D and Mannequin three batteries (and we don’t but have a graph for the Mannequin three mid vary, however it might even have some headroom).
The Mannequin three Lengthy Vary’s EPA doc (under) clearly states that the battery is able to 525 amp charging (equating to round 183 kW, given the pack’s 350 volts), which is supported by Mannequin three teardowns which have uncovered inner DC cost cabling able to supporting these amp ranges. This speaks volumes concerning the newer know-how within the Mannequin three’s battery pack, doubtless enabled by some mixture of cell chemistry (newer), cell geometry (21700s vs. 18650s), and cooling system design. For current functions, it additionally tells us about Tesla’s Supercharging roadmap (extra on this under).
On the time it first got here available on the market in 2016, the 75D battery pack’s DC charging was quick sufficient to far out-compete something the EV competitors might supply. Now the Audi e-tron is quickly to be delivered, which may DC cost at 155 kW peak, and by the top of this yr (or early subsequent), the Porsche Taycan will seem, which Porsche is claiming can DC cost at one thing round 350 kW peak (though nearer to 280 kW common, extra on this under). Though the Mannequin X75D has an extended vary and is way extra environment friendly than the e-tron, it’s charging nonetheless loses out barely on a far per minute foundation (including 145 EPA freeway miles in 30 minutes, vs. the e-Tron’s possible 157 EPA miles, by my estimate). Likewise, the S75D can be outgunned on a far per minute charging foundation by the Taycan, regardless of having a larger EPA vary.
What do these indicators this recommend about Tesla’s steps going forwards?
It’s certainly not completely for nothing that the Mannequin three’s EPA doc factors to a charging functionality of 525 amps, and the onboard cabling helps it. Tesla has evidently already prepped the Mannequin three for the subsequent evolution in Supercharging.
Permitting for a security margin, it appears that evidently round 500 amps might be the goal for the V3 Superchargers, up from the present most 330 amps. This additionally matches the CCS model 2.zero specs’s most amperage ceiling, and we all know Tesla is trying to align to some extent with the CCS requirements, a minimum of in its European market (the place the e-tron and Taycan will principally be promoting). If that is right, then what extra does this entail?
The Mannequin three seems to be set for a strong 175 kW peak Supercharging (350 volts * 500 amps). Definitely, the long-range battery ought to be able to this, although the mid vary and commonplace vary might are available barely decrease (however nonetheless nicely above the 120 kW current ceiling).
500 amps mixed with the S and X’s current 400 volt batteries ought to in precept permit 200 kW peak DC Supercharging. The current P/100D pack might or might not help this, however it’s definitely one thing we will anticipate from all future S and X battery packs, together with no matter is launched to switch the retired 75D packs.
200 kW Supercharging is already fairly good. However maintain on to your hat for a minute.
The upcoming Tesla Roadster’s 200 kWh battery would nonetheless take a comparatively very long time to re-charge to 80% if it (and the Superchargers) are restricted to 200 kW energy ranges — for much longer than the Mannequin three’s ~80 kWh (gross) pack would require at 175 kW. This means Tesla will sooner or later be trying to elevate its battery pack and powertrain voltages on the Roadster.
Likewise, the upcoming Tesla pickup truck may even want a big battery, and can chew by means of power extra shortly than the opposite Teslas. It too would profit from greater-than-200 kW charging, and thus greater battery pack voltages. The Jaguar I-PACE and Audi e-tron’s batteries have nominal voltages of 450 volts. The Taycan, 800 volts.
The draw back of upper voltages is that it requires costlier inverters and different electrical elements. The plus aspect is that it permits higher power-to-heat ratios (amongst different issues). I wouldn’t be stunned if Tesla configures the Roadster’s voltage up in the direction of 500, 600, and even 800 volts, and maybe likewise for the pickup truck. This additionally means that some (if not all) of the v3 Superchargers can be prepped to be able to outputting these greater voltages, even when these talents lie dormant initially. Once more, the CCS 2.zero normal can supply voltage and amperage mixtures as much as 1000 volts (although not concurrently with the utmost 500 Amps). Tesla might nicely look to comply with go well with.
One more reason to anticipate that Supercharger v3 shall be prepared for greater voltages is to permit the S to compete with the Taycan. At 200 kW, even mixed with the Mannequin S’s class-leading power effectivity, the S can’t fairly match the Taycan’s recharging occasions in miles added per minute. Based mostly on all that Porsche has promised, the Taycan will maintain a mean cost energy near 350 kW for the primary 60% of charging, then taper off significantly to provide a session common 288 kW by the point 80% cost is reached. This equates to 80% charging inside 15 minutes (ranging from or close to empty). Given the Taycan’s pack measurement is round 90 kWh (usable), and the vary is 500 km / 310 miles (NEDC), we will do the maths. The outdated NEDC vary score is often inflated anyplace between 30% and 60% in comparison with the extra practical EPA scores. Let’s speculate that the Taycan’s EPA vary shall be 225 miles (assuming 38% inflation). The 80% quantities to including 180 (EPA) miles in 15 minutes.
For the present Mannequin S100D, the EPA mixed vary is 335 miles (from the usable ~96 kWh pack). Though this makes the Mannequin S some 40% extra environment friendly than the Taycan, it additionally signifies that 15 minutes of 200 kW charging provides about 174 (EPA) miles of vary, a bit in need of the Taycan’s mile-per-minute price. If, as we speculated above, the Superchargers are prepped with voltages above their current 400–410 volt ceiling, it might make sense for the S and X to additionally profit from having larger voltages sooner or later, to maintain abreast of the competitors. This might probably be someplace between 450 and 800 volts. Even at 450 volts (permitting 225 kW charging at 500 amps), the Tesla Mannequin S would add extra miles per minute than the Taycan.
The 75D battery pack’s retirement suggests that a new pack is on the best way, with extra leading edge capabilities. According to the corporate’s advertising shift for the Mannequin three, Tesla will probably seek advice from the brand new pack as a “Standard Range” (or “Mid Range”) battery. Within the Mannequin S, this can possible see EPA vary pushed in the direction of 300 miles (from the S75D’s 259 miles), with the standard scaling of vary for the Mannequin X. It’s going to even be Supercharger v3 prepared, so able to peak charging of a minimum of 200 kW (if pack voltage stays at 400 volts nominal).
To not be outdone, the P/100D battery may also need to see an improve earlier than lengthy, maybe in the direction of 110–112 kWh usable (a “120D” pack), which ought to correspond to 400 miles of EPA vary and be formally renamed “Long Range.” It’ll additionally get the brand new know-how, and be able to at the very least 200 kW charging. Each these upcoming Commonplace Vary and Lengthy Vary packs might sooner or later see the voltage rise from the current 400 nominal volts to 450, 500, or extra. Whether or not these packs will incorporate the Gigafactory’s 21700 cells (the unique Tesla-Panasonic contract for two billion 18650 cells is reportedly near being fulfilled) or just newer chemistry 18650s is an fascinating query, however one for an additional day.
We might be assured of the above 200 kW Supercharging, as a result of we’ve seen that the Mannequin three’s internals and paperwork present it’s able to 525 amps (in all probability 500 amps in follow). This implies the v3 Superchargers will very possible be operating at 500 amps, giving the Mannequin three 175 kW charging (and the S and X 200 kW charging).
If the Roadster and pickup truck are to be future proofed when it comes to charging speeds, Tesla might have to step up the working voltage to 450, 500, 600, or extra. If this attitude is sensible, we will anticipate the v3 Superchargers to be prepared for these greater voltages, up from their conventional 410 peak volts. That is consistent with tendencies in CCS charging evolution. If so, it might make sense for the S and X emigrate in the direction of greater voltages additionally.
Provided that Tesla automobiles have a lot larger power effectivity than the competitors (40% or extra in comparison with the e-tron and Taycan), they don’t have to rush to focus on 350 kW charging to be able to present one of the best miles-per-minute charging speeds. With 500 amp Supercharging and a few evolution of working voltages, Tesla can keep its established lead.
Lastly, the density and distribution of the Supercharger community is leagues forward of the competitors, making Tesla quick charging far more sensible and handy than any of the competitors in the actual world. There are very constructive strikes occurring with public DC charging networks in Europe and the US, however even with these, Tesla continues to be far out in entrance and continues to roll out new infrastructure.
All the EVs we’ve got talked about listed here are excellent automobiles and supply a much better proprietor expertise than any equal gasoline car.
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